Labour said Scotland has been dealt a blow that would not be forgotten, while the SNP said communities have been betrayed.
Defence minister Mark Francois, speaking at Edinburgh Castle after the Commons statement, said: "This announcement will provide certainty and security for Armed Forces personnel, their families, for the defence of Scotland and for the wider defence of the United Kingdom."
Two Army units returning from Germany will be based at RAF Leuchars which is to be converted to an Army base in 2015. Dreghorn barracks in Edinburgh will no longer be sold off, while its current occupants, 1st Battalion, the Royal Regiment of Scotland, will move to Belfast next year.
The Royal Marines will remain at RM Condor in Arbroath while the headquarters of the 51st Infantry Brigade will move from Forthside Barracks in Stirling to Redford Barracks in Edinburgh.
Craigiehall Barracks, part of Redford Barracks and part of Forthside Barracks will be sold. A proposed redevelopment of RAF Kirknewton, near Edinburgh, will not go ahead.