At least 15 workers have been sacked or resigned as a result of the breaches while others were even given counselling as a result of the offence, though some health boards refused to detail what disciplinary action had been taken.
The Conservatives said the true numbers are expected to be much higher because Scotland's largest health board - Greater Glasgow and Clyde - did not provide its figures.
Conservative health spokesman Jackson Carlaw said: "More and more sensitive information in hospitals is being held electronically, including patient records and highly confidential data.
"As a result, we need to ensure those who have access act completely responsibly to ensure it doesn't end up in the wrong hands. The fact this trend appears to be increasing is very concerning, particularly when you consider high-profile incidents of data loss over recent years.
"I'm sure the vast majority of these breaches have been committed accidentally but that makes it even more critical that the NHS IT system is secure and resilient to such gaffes."